Keynotes of a Speech on Population Growth: its Causes of Rapid Growing Population and Causes for the Decline in the Death Rate!
Population refers to the total number of individuals of the same species occupying a particular geographic area at a given time. Population growth is often characterized as exponential; that is it increases (or decreases) by a fixed percentage of the existing total number over a unit period of time.
P = Poert
Where P = Future size of the population
Po = Current size of population
t = Number of years for extrapolation
r = Assumed constant growth rate for each of the t years.
e — Base of natural logarithm
The growth rate of the population is determined by four principal components:
(a) Birth rate (Nasality): It is the number of births per 1000 individual in one year.
(b) Death Rate (Mortality): The number of death per 1000 individual per year is called mortality.
Causes of Rapidly Growing Population:
Following are the factors for rapid population growth:
1. High birth rate
2. Relatively lower death rate
3. An assortment of economic and social factors have been reported for high birth rate. These factors are:
(a) Wide spread poverty
(b) Slow rate of urbanization and predominance of villages.
(c) Unchanged occupational distribution of population and predominance of agriculture.
(d) Lack of education
(e) Joint family system
(f) Near universality of marriage
(g) Religious and social superstitions which induce people to have more children.
Causes of Decline in the Death Rate:
1. Removal of famine
2. Control of epidemic
3. Decline of dangerous disease
4. Immense medical facilities
5. Spread of education